Relative atomic mass: 28.0855 +- 0.0003

English: Silicon
French: Silicium
Croatian: Silicij
German: Silicium
Italian: Silicio
Spanish: Silicio

Atomic number: 14
Group numbers: 14
Period: 3
Standard state (20 oC): solid

Discovery: 1824 Jons Jacob Berzelius (SE)
Silicon was discovered by Jons Jacob Berzelius (SE) in 1824. The origin of the name comes from the Latin word silicis meaning flint. Amorphous form of silicon is brown powder; crystalline form has grey metallic appearance. The solid form is unreactive with oxygen, water and most acids. It dissolves in hot alkali. Silica dust is a moderately toxic acute irritant. Silicon makes up major portion of clay, granite, quartz (SiO2) and sand. Commercial production depends on a reaction between sand (SiO2) and carbon at a temperature of around 2200 °C. It is used in glass as silicon dioxide (SiO2). Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the hardest substances known and used in polishing. Silicon is by far the more widely used semiconductor for electronics. The price of 99.999 % pure silicon granular is 67.40 for 1000 g.
Electronic configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Formal oxidation number: -4 +2 +4
Atomic radius: 117.6 pm

Electronegativities: 1.9
Thermal conductivity: 148 W/(m K)
Electrical resistivity (20 oC): 10 microOhm cm

Melting point: 1414 oC
Boiling point: 3265 oC

Heat of fusion: 39.6 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 383.3 kJ/mol
Heat of atomization: 451.29 kJ/mol

13Al <= 14Si => 15P

ASCII Periodic Table of the Elements
6 Jan. 2020
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