Relative atomic mass: 30.973762 +- 0.000002

English: Phosphorus
French: Phosphore
Croatian: Fosfor
German: Phosphor
Italian: Fosforo
Spanish: Fosforo

Atomic number: 15
Group numbers: 15
Period: 3
Standard state (20 oC): solid

Discovery: 1669 Hennig Brandt (DE)
Phosphorus was discovered by Hennig Brandt (DE) in 1669. The origin of the name comes from the Greek word phosphoros meaning bringer of light. White phosphorus is white to yellow soft, waxy phosphorescent solid with acrid fumes. It's Toxic by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Red phosphorus is powdery, non-flammable and non-toxic. Phosphorus is most often found in phosphate rock. Pure form is obtained by heating a mixture of phosphate rock, coke and silica to about 1450 °C. It is used in the production of fertilizers and detergents. Some is used in fireworks, safety matches and incendiary weapons. Phosphorus is also important in the production of steels, phosphor bronze and many other products. The price of 99 % pure phosphorus powder is 43.90 for 500 g.
Electronic configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p3
Formal oxidation number: -3 +3 +5
Atomic radius: 110.5 pm

Electronegativities: 2.19
Thermal conductivity: 0.235 W/(m K)
Electrical resistivity (20 oC): 1E+17 microOhm cm

Melting point: 44.15 oC
Boiling point: 280.5 oC

Heat of fusion: 2.51 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 51.9 kJ/mol
Heat of atomization: 314 kJ/mol

14Si <= 15P => 16S

ASCII Periodic Table of the Elements
6 Jan. 2020
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