Relative atomic mass: 157.25 +- 0.03

English: Gadolinium
French: Gadolinium
Croatian: Gadolinij
German: Gadolinium
Italian: Gadolinio
Spanish: Gadolinio

Atomic number: 64
Group numbers: 3
Period: 6
Standard state (20 oC): solid

Discovery: 1880 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (CH)
Gadolinium was discovered by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (CH) in 1880. Named after the mineral gadolinite, named for J. Gadolin, a Finnish chemist and mineralogist. It is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that reacts slowly with water and oxygen. Gadolinium dissolves in acids. The metal ignites and burns readily. Gadolinium is found with other rare earths in gadolinite and monazite sand. It is used in steel alloying agents and the manufacture of electronic components. The price of 99.9 % pure gadolinium pieces is 218.80 for 50 g.
Electronic configuration: [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Formal oxidation number: +3
Atomic radius: 178.7 pm

Electronegativities: 1.2
Thermal conductivity: 10.6 W/(m K)
Electrical resistivity (20 oC): 140.5 microOhm cm

Melting point: 1313 oC
Boiling point: 3273 oC

Heat of fusion: 15.5 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 301 kJ/mol
Heat of atomization: 398.94 kJ/mol

63Eu <= 64Gd => 65Tb

ASCII Periodic Table of the Elements
6 Jan. 2020
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