Relative atomic mass: 69.723 +- 0.001

English: Gallium
French: Gallium
Croatian: Galij
German: Gallium
Italian: Gallio
Spanish: Galio

Atomic number: 31
Group numbers: 13
Period: 4
Standard state (20 oC): solid

Discovery: 1875 Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran (FR)
Gallium was discovered by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran (FR) in 1875. The origin of the name comes from the Latin word Gallia meaning France. It is a soft, blue-white metal, stable in air and water that reacts violently with chlorine and bromine. Gallium is found throughout the crust in minerals like bauxite, germanite and coal. It is used in semiconductor production, in making LED's (light-emitting diodes) and GaAs laser diodes. The price of 99.99 % pure gallium ingot is 930.40 for 500 g.
Electronic configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Formal oxidation number: +3
Atomic radius: 122.1 pm

Electronegativities: 1.81
Thermal conductivity: 40.6 W/(m K)
Electrical resistivity (20 oC): 17.4 microOhm cm

Melting point: 29.76 oC
Boiling point: 2204 oC

Heat of fusion: 5.59 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 270.3 kJ/mol
Heat of atomization: 276 kJ/mol

30Zn <= 31Ga => 32Ge

ASCII Periodic Table of the Elements
6 Jan. 2020
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