Relative atomic mass: 72.64 +- 0.01

English: Germanium
French: Germanium
Croatian: Germanij
German: Germanium
Italian: Germanio
Spanish: Germanio

Atomic number: 32
Group numbers: 14
Period: 4
Standard state (20 oC): solid

Discovery: 1886 Clemens Alexander Winkler (DE)
Germanium was discovered by Clemens Alexander Winkler (DE) in 1886. The origin of the name comes from the Latin word Germania meaning Germany. It is a greyish-white semi-metal, stable in air and water. Germanium is unaffected by alkalis and most (except nitric) acids. Germanium is obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead. It is widely used in semiconductors when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium and antimony. The price of 99.9999 % pure germanium ingot is 1088.10 for 120 g.
Electronic configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Formal oxidation number: +2 +4
Atomic radius: 122.5 pm

Electronegativities: 2.01
Thermal conductivity: 59.9 W/(m K)
Electrical resistivity (20 oC): 46000000 microOhm cm

Melting point: 938.25 oC
Boiling point: 2833 oC

Heat of fusion: 34.7 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 327.6 kJ/mol
Heat of atomization: 373.8 kJ/mol

31Ga <= 32Ge => 33As

ASCII Periodic Table of the Elements
6 Jan. 2020
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