Relative atomic mass: 88.90585 +- 0.00002

English: Yttrium
French: Yttrium
Croatian: Itrij
German: Yttrium
Italian: Ittrio
Spanish: Itrio

Atomic number: 39
Group numbers: 3
Period: 5
Standard state (20 oC): solid

Discovery: 1794 Johan Gadolin (FI)
Yttrium was discovered by Johan Gadolin (FI) in 1794. Named after Ytterby, a village in Sweden. It is a silvery, ductile, fairly reactive metal that is easily combustible, reacts with oxygen in water to release hydrogen. Exposed surfaces form oxide film. Yttrium is found in minerals such as monazite, xenotime and yttria. It is combined with europium to make red phosphors for colour TV's. Yttrium oxide and iron oxide combine to form a crystal garnet used in radar. The price of 99.9 % pure yttrium ingot is 229.00 for 50 g.
Electronic configuration: [Kr] 4d1 5s2
Formal oxidation number: +3
Atomic radius: 177.6 pm

Electronegativities: 1.22
Thermal conductivity: 17.2 W/(m K)
Electrical resistivity (20 oC): 57 microOhm cm

Melting point: 1522 oC
Boiling point: 3345 oC

Heat of fusion: 17.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 367.4 kJ/mol
Heat of atomization: 420.45 kJ/mol

38Sr <= 39Y => 40Zr

ASCII Periodic Table of the Elements
6 Jan. 2020
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