Relative atomic mass: 44.955912 +- 0.000006

English: Scandium
French: Scandium
Croatian: Skandij
German: Scandium
Italian: Scandio
Spanish: Escandio

Atomic number: 21
Group numbers: 3
Period: 4
Standard state (20 oC): solid

Discovery: 1879 Lars Fredrik Nilson (SE)
Scandium was discovered by Lars Fredrik Nilson (SE) in 1879. The origin of the name comes from the Latin word Scandia meaning Scandinavia. It is a fairly soft, silvery-white metal. It burns easily and tarnishes readily in air, and react with water to form hydrogen gas Scandium occurs mainly in the minerals thortveitile (~34% scandium), wiikite and in some tin and tungsten ores. Pure scandium is obtained as a by-product of uranium refining. Scandium metal is used in some aerospace applications. Scandium oxide (Sc2O3) is used in the manufacture of high-intensity electric lamps. Scandium iodide (ScI3) is used in lamps that produce light having a colour closely matching natural sunlight. The price of 99.9 % pure scandium ingot is 263.10 for 1 g.
Electronic configuration: [Ar] 3d1 4s2
Formal oxidation number: +3
Atomic radius: 160.6 pm

Electronegativities: 1.36
Thermal conductivity: 15.8 W/(m K)
Electrical resistivity (20 oC): 61 microOhm cm

Melting point: 1541 oC
Boiling point: 2836 oC

Heat of fusion: 15.9 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 376.1 kJ/mol
Heat of atomization: 376.02 kJ/mol

20Ca <= 21Sc => 22Ti

ASCII Periodic Table of the Elements
6 Jan. 2020
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