Relative atomic mass: 92.90638 +- 0.00002

English: Niobium
French: Niobium
Croatian: Niobij
German: Niob
Italian: Niobio
Spanish: Niobio

Atomic number: 41
Group numbers: 5
Period: 5
Standard state (20 oC): solid

Discovery: 1801 Charles Hatchett (GB)
Niobium was discovered by Charles Hatchett (GB) in 1801. The origin of the name comes from the Greek word Niobe meaning daughter of Tantalus in Greek mythology (tantalum is closely related to niobium in the periodic table). It is a shiny white, soft, ductile metal. Exposed surfaces form oxide film. Niobium occurs in a mineral columbite. It is used in stainless steel alloys for nuclear reactors, jets and missiles. It is used as an alloy with iron and nickel. It can be used in nuclear reactors and is known to be superconductive when alloyed with tin, aluminium or zirconium. The price of 99.8 % pure niobium pieces is 47.20 for 100 g.
Electronic configuration: [Kr] 4d4 5s1
Formal oxidation number: +3 +5
Atomic radius: 142.9 pm

Electronegativities: 1.6
Thermal conductivity: 53.7 W/(m K)
Electrical resistivity (20 oC): 12.5 microOhm cm

Melting point: 2477 oC
Boiling point: 4744 oC

Heat of fusion: 27.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization: 680.19 kJ/mol
Heat of atomization: 722.819 kJ/mol

40Zr <= 41Nb => 42Mo

ASCII Periodic Table of the Elements
6 Jan. 2020
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